United Seamen’s Service

The United Seamen’s Service, sometimes abbreviated as the USS, is a non-profit, federally chartered organization founded in 1942 to promote the welfare of American seafarers and their dependents, seafarers of all nations, US government military and civilian personnel, and other persons engaged in the maritime industry.

Since its inception, the USS has provided services overseas for American and international seafarers meat tenderizers natural. USS’s network of worldwide port centers offers seafarers two types of services:

There are currently 7 port centers open: Bremerhaven, Germany; Casablanca, Morocco; Diego Garcia, B.I.O.T.; Guam, M.I.; Naha, Okinawa, Japan; Pusan, Korea; and Yokohama, Japan. Many other centers existed during the years of World War II and thereafter, including centers in Naples and Genoa, Italy; Bandar Mahshahr, Iran football tee; Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam; Alexandria, Egypt and Manila, Philippines.

While the main charter of the USS is to serve merchant marine personnel, a large part of their clientele over the years has come from United States Navy and other international military personnel. As the constitution of merchant marine fleets changed over time, with many computerized supertankers requiring only a handful of crewmen to operate, and with military deployment adjustments, many centers were forced to close due to reduced patronage. As an example the center in Naples, Italy was heavily dependent on personnel from the United States Sixth Fleet; during the 1970s, aircraft carriers (such as the USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67), destroyer tenders (such as the USS Grand Canyon (AD-28) and USS Cascade (AD-16), as well as myriad destroyers and patrol gunboats made Naples their home, and sailors found the USS facilities another home away from home.

The U.S. Military has long cooperated with the United Seamen’s Service in a number of ways. DoD Directive 1330.16, issued July 10, 1971 (now cancelled) provided for policies, procedures, and responsibilities governing DoD cooperation with and assistance to the United Seamen’s Service (USS) under Title 10, United States Code, Section 2604.

Each year the USS confers its AOTOS (Admiral of the Ocean Sea) award upon individuals who have made significant contributions to maritime commerce.

The USS is a part of the Global Impact Coalition, which contains 55 of the most respected charities in the world.

Share This:

Ruderverein Bad Wimpfen

Der Ruderverein Bad Wimpfen e. V. wurde 1923 in Bad Wimpfen gegründet und hat sein Domizil seitdem unterhalb der historischen Pfalz Wimpfen am Ufer des Neckars nahe der Neckarbrücke.

Die Flagge des RV Bad Wimpfen besteht aus einer weißen Fläche in der linken oberen Ecke, auf der der Wimpfener Adler, die Buchstaben R, V und W, sowie das Gründungsjahr 1923 abgebildet sind. Die restliche Fläche besteht aus neun Streifen, die abwechselnd schwarz und gelb gefärbt sind.

Die Blätter des RV Bad Wimpfen sind hälftig gelb (oben) und schwarz (unten) gefärbt.

Nach dem Aufruf zur Gründerversammlung am 12. Juni 1923 wurde der Ruderverein Wimpfen am Neckar, mit Sitz in Wimpfen, am 24. September 1923 in das Vereinsregister des örtlichen hessischen Amtsgerichts eingetragen. Als Gründungsväter waren Heinrich Engel, Forstmeister von Becker metal reusable water bottle, Bankdirektor Müller running belts reviews, Zahnarzt Erich Geiger und Rechtsanwalt Friedrich Weiß eingetragen. Der Bootspark bestand anfangs nur aus sieben „Bummelbooten“, die auch an Nichtmitglieder verliehen wurden, um somit die Kosten zu decken. Am 25 Oktober 1924 konnte der Verein seine beiden ersten Sportboote (Zweisitzer) auf die Namen Wimpina und Neckar taufen. Das ehemalige Salzmagazin der Saline Ludwigshalle wurde dem Ruderverein 1927 pachtweise überlassen. Der Pachtzins betrug eine Reichsmark im Jahr. Im Zweiten Weltkrieg wurden das Bootshaus und der Bootsbestand bei der Sprengung der Hindenburgbrücke völlig zerstört.

Nach 1947 begannen die Mitglieder mit der Planung und dem Neubau des Bootshauses. Nachdem im Juli 1952 das neue Bootshaus eingeweiht werden konnte, wurde 1973 der Grundstein für die erste Erweiterung gelegt. Dadurch wurde ein richtiges Bootshaus mit Umkleideräumen, sanitären Einrichtungen und einem Clubraum geschaffen. Der Aufbau eines geeigneten Bootsbestandes hat viel Arbeit und Geld gekostet. Als Krönung konnte beim Anrudern 1981 der Achter durch den damaligen Bürgermeister Klaus Czernuska auf den Namen Stadt Bad Wimpfen getauft werden. Inzwischen war der Bootsbestand soweit ausgebaut, dass für jede Ruderin und jeden Ruderer ein passendes Boot vorhanden war.

Zum 75. Vereinsjubiläum wurde 1998 die Fassade und der Clubraum des Bootshauses renoviert. Da die Bootshalle inzwischen für den Bootsbestand zu klein geworden war, beschloss man im Jahr 2000, diese im gleichen Stil um acht Meter zu verlängern, um so mehr Platz zu schaffen.

Koordinaten:

Share This:

Extreme Rules

Extreme Rules er et pay-per-view-show inden for wrestling produceret af World Wrestling Entertainment. Det er ét af organisationens månedlige shows og blev afholdt for første gang d. 7. juni 2009 i New Orleans Arena i New Orleans, Louisiana. I 2010 blev showet flyttet to måneder frem til april. Det fungerer dermed både som erstatning for WWE’s One Night Stand, der fungerede som pay-per-view-show i juni fra 2005 til 2008, samt WWE’s Judgment Day, der havde fungeret som pay-per-view-show i april siden 2000.

Extreme Rules-showet er det eneste af WWE’s månedlige pay-per-view-shows, hvor alle kampene på programmet bliver kæmpet under ekstreme regler. Det er på mange måder en kombination af ECW’s One Night Stand og WCW’s Uncensored small bag for running.

Extreme Rules 2009 fandt sted d. 7. juni 2009 fra New Orleans Arena i New Orleans, Louisiana.

Extreme Rules 2010 fandt sted d. 25. april 2010 fra 1st Mariner Arena i Baltimore, Maryland goalie soccer gloves.

Extreme Rules 2011 fandt sted d. 1. maj 2011 fra St. Pete Times Forum i Tampa, Florida.

Extreme Rules 2012 fandt sted d. 29. april 2012 fra Allstate Arena i Rosemont, Illinois.

Share This:

Filipijnse hapvogel

De Filipijnse hapvogel (Sarcophanops steerii, ook wel Eurylaimus steerii) is een vogel uit de familie van de Eurylaimidae (breedbekken en hapvogels). De soort komt alleen voor in de Filipijnen.

De vogel is 16,5 tot 17,5 cm en weegt 33 tot 44 gram. Het is een opvallende vogel met blauwe randen rond het oog.Het mannetje heeft een kastanjebruine kruin, zwart ”gezicht” en zwarte keel met daaronder een opvallende witte kraag. De mantel en de rug zijn donkergrijs, de onderkant van de rug, stuit en staart zijn roodbruin, waarbij de stuit en staartveren een purperen glans hebben. De vleugels zijn zwart met een opvallende wit en gele band. De buik is lilakleurig. De snavel is blauw en de poten zijn blauwachtig. Het vrouwtje verschilt weinig van het mannetje; zij heeft een geheel witte buik. De vogel lijkt op de samarhapvogel, maar die is iets kleiner en heeft geen opvallende glass bottle drinks, witte halsband.

De Filipijnse hapvogel komt alleen voor in het zuiden van de Filipijnen en leeft daar in de onderste twee etages van de laatste resten van het tropische regenwoud met hoge plankwortelbomen. De vogel wordt ook waargenomen in secundair bos, mits dit grenst aan ongestoord riviergeleidend bos en soms in mangrovebos of gebied met struikgewas, meestal in laagland onder de 1000 m boven de zeespiegel.

Er worden twee ondersoorten onderscheiden:

Er is niet veel bekend over de voortplanting van deze soort in het wild. Er zijn aanwijzingen dat het broedseizoen zich met name beperkt tot de maanden april en mei.

De grootte van de wereldpopulatie werd in 2012 geschat op minder dan 10 thermos straw bottle.000 volwassen dieren, maar deze schatting is slecht gedocumenteerd best plastic water bottle. De Filipijnse hapvogel gaat in aantal achteruit stainless steel toddler water bottle. Het leefgebied wordt op grote schaal ontbost, zowel op legale wijze ten behoeve van onder andere mijnbouwactiviteiten, als door illegale houtkap.Om deze redenen staat deze soort als kwetsbaar (voor uitsterven) op de Rode Lijst van de IUCN.

Share This:

Christian II. (Sachsen-Merseburg)

Christian II. von Sachsen-Merseburg (* 19. November 1653 in Merseburg; † 20. Oktober 1694 ebenda) war Angehöriger einer Seitenlinie der albertinischen Wettiner und zweiter Herzog des kursächsischen Sekundogeniturfürstentums Sachsen-Merseburg. Zur Unterscheidung von seinem Vater wird er auch „Christian der Jüngere“ oder „Christian der Andere“ genannt.

Christian war der zweite Sohn des Herzogs Christian I. von Sachsen-Merseburg und dessen Gemahlin Christiana, einer Tochter des Herzogs Philipp von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.

Der Tod seines älteren Bruders Erbprinz Johann Georg machte ihn 1654 zum Erben des Merseburger Herzogtums, dessen Thron er 37-jährig mit dem Tode seines Vaters am 18. Oktober 1691 bestieg.

In seiner nur drei Jahre währenden Regierung im Fürstentum gelang es ihm kaum Spuren zu hinterlassen. Er ist heute gemeinsam mit dem seiner Gemahlin auf einem der Obelisken im Garten von Schloss Merseburg verewigt.

Der bereits unter seinem Vater und Vorgänger anschwelende Konflikt mit den kursächsischen Vettern um die Unterstellung von Landsassen und anderen Rechten mündete in der Regierungszeit Christians II. schließlich sogar in die kurzweilige Besetzung Merseburgs durch kursächsische Truppen.

Herzog Christian II. stirbt bereits am 20. Oktober 1694 40-jährig und wird in einem Zinnprunksarg in der Fürstengruft des Merseburger Doms beigesetzt. Ihm folgen nacheinander seine beiden Söhne Christian III waterproof smartphone pouch. Moritz und Moritz Wilhelm auf den Thron jogging bottle. Die Administration für die noch unmündigen Fürsten führt Friedrich August I. von Sachsen, die Vormundschaft hält Christians einflussreiche Witwe Erdmuth Dorothea von Sachsen-Zeitz.

Seine einzige Ehe schloss er am 14. Oktober 1679 auf Schloss Moritzburg in Zeitz mit Herzogin Erdmuth Dorothea von Sachsen-Zeitz, der Tochter des Herzogs Moritz von Sachsen-Zeitz aus dessen Ehe mit Dorothea Maria von Sachsen-Weimar.

Mit seiner Gemahlin hatte er folgende Kinder:

Share This:

Tunel Seikan

Tunel Seikan (jap. 青函トンネル Seikan tonneru? funtainer drink bottle, także 青函隧道 Seikan zuidō) – najdłuższy na świecie podmorski tunel kolejowy.

Do 1 czerwca 2016 r. był najdłuższym tunelem jaki zbudowano, dopóki nie otwarto Gotthard Base Tunnel. Tunel łączy japońskie wyspy Honsiu i Hokkaido. Jego długość wynosi około 54 km (z czego 23,3 km znajduje się pod wodą). Koszt budowy wyniósł ponad 6 mld dolarów.

Skała wulkaniczna pod cieśniną Tsugaru nie nadawała się do odwiertów, więc znaczna część skał została usunięta przy pomocy dynamitu. Testowe odwierty zaczęły się w 1961 r green glass water juice bottle., a budowa tunelu ruszyła w 1971 r. Pierwsze połączenie obu stron nastąpiło w 1983 r manual orange juicer. Tunel został oddany do użytku 13 marca 1988 r.

Wewnątrz tunelu znajdują się dwie stacje (Yoshioka-Kaitei i Tappi-Kaitei) buy glass water bottle. Obie mają charakter muzealny i opisują historię oraz funkcjonowanie tunelu.

Nazwę zbudowano łącząc pierwszy znak kanji nazwy Aomori (青森) oraz Hakodate (函館), głównych miast, które łączy Seikan.

Share This:

Fall of Constantinople

Byzantines

Land forces:

Naval forces:

Note: Of the 7,000 – 10,000 soldiers in the Byzantine army, 700 were both Genoese and Greek from the island of Chios and Genoa (400 were recruited at Genoa and 300 at Chios), 800 soldiers led by the Venetians (mostly of Cretan origin, and renowned for having fought heroically during the siege), and 200 men from Cardinal Isidore, all of whom were archers. By nationality, there were 5,000 Greeks and 2,000 foreigners, mostly of Genoese and Venetian origin.

Ottomans

Land forces: [a]:
50,000–80,000
[b]:
100,000–160,000–200,000 to 300,000

Naval forces:

The Fall of Constantinople (Greek: Ἃλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; Turkish: İstanbul’un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on 29 May 1453. The Ottomans were commanded by the then 21-year-old Mehmed the Conqueror, the seventh sultan of the Ottoman Empire, who defeated an army commanded by Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos. The conquest of Constantinople followed a 53-day siege that had begun on 6 April 1453.

The capture of Constantinople (and two other Byzantine splinter territories soon thereafter) marked the end of the Roman Empire, an imperial state that had lasted for nearly 1,500 years. The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople also dealt a massive blow to Christendom, as the Muslim Ottoman armies thereafter were left unchecked to advance into Europe without an adversary to their rear. After the conquest, Sultan Mehmed II transferred the capital of the Ottoman Empire from Edirne to Constantinople.

The conquest of the city of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire was a key event in the Late Middle Ages, which also marks, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages.

Constantinople had been an imperial capital since its consecration in 330 under Roman Emperor, Constantine the Great. In the following eleven centuries, the city had been besieged many times but was captured only once: during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The crusaders established an unstable Latin state in and around Constantinople while the remaining empire splintered into a number of Byzantine successor states, notably Nicaea, Epirus and Trebizond. They fought as allies against the Latin establishments, but also fought among themselves for the Byzantine throne.

The Nicaeans eventually reconquered Constantinople from the Latins in 1261. Thereafter there was little peace for the much-weakened empire as it fended off successive attacks by the Latins, the Serbians, the Bulgarians, and, most importantly, the Ottoman Turks. The Black Plague between 1346 and 1349 killed almost half of the inhabitants of Constantinople. The city was severely depopulated due to the general economic and territorial decline of the empire, and by 1453 consisted of a series of walled villages separated by vast fields encircled by the fifth-century Theodosian walls.

By 1450 the empire was exhausted and had shrunk to a few square miles outside the city of Constantinople itself, the Princes’ Islands in the Sea of Marmara, and the Peloponnese with its cultural center at Mystras. The Empire of Trebizond, an independent successor state that formed in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, also survived on the coast of the Black Sea.

When Sultan Mehmed II succeeded his father in 1451, it was widely believed that the young ruler, then 19 years old, would prove incapable—and that he would pose no great threat to Christian possessions in the Balkans and the Aegean. This optimism was reinforced by friendly assurances made by Mehmed to envoys sent to his new court. But Mehmed’s actions spoke far louder than his mild words. Beginning early in 1452, he built a second Ottoman fortress on the Bosphorus, on the European side several miles north of Constantinople, set directly across the strait from the similar fortress, Anadolu Hisarı, which his great-grandfather Bayezid I had previously built on the Asian side. This pair of fortresses gave the Turks complete control of sea traffic on the Bosphorus; specifically, it prevented help from the north, the Genoese colonies on the Black Sea coast, from reaching Constantinople. (The new fortress was also known as Boğazkesen, which held the dual meanings ‘strait-blocker’ or ‘throat-cutter’, emphasizing its strategic position.) In October 1452, Mehmed ordered Turakhan Beg to lead a large force into the Peloponnese and remain there to keep Thomas and Demetrios from assisting their brother Constantine XI Palaiologos during the impending siege of Constantinople.

Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI swiftly understood Mehmed’s true intentions and turned to Western Europe for help; but now the price of centuries of war and enmity between the eastern and western churches had to be paid. Since the mutual excommunications of 1054, the Pope in Rome was committed to establishing authority over the eastern church. Nominal union had been negotiated in 1274, at the Second Council of Lyon, and indeed, some Palaiologoi emperors (Latin, Palaeologan) had since been received into the Latin church. Emperor John VIII Palaiologos had also recently negotiated union with Pope Eugene IV, with the Council of Florence of 1439 proclaiming a Bull of Union. These events, however, stimulated a propaganda initiative by anti-unionist Orthodox partisans in Constantinople; the population, as well as the laity and leadership of the Byzantine Church, became bitterly divided. Latent ethnic hatred between Greeks and Italians, stemming from the events of the Massacre of the Latins in 1182 by the Greeks and the sack of Constantinople in 1204 by the Latins, played a significant role. Finally, the attempted Union failed, greatly annoying Pope Nicholas V and the hierarchy of the Roman church.

In the summer of 1452, when Rumelı Hisari was completed and the threat had become imminent, Constantine wrote to the Pope, promising to implement the Union, which was declared valid by a half-hearted imperial court on 12 December 1452. Although he was eager for an advantage, Pope Nicholas V did not have the influence the Byzantines thought he had over the Western kings and princes, some of whom were wary of increasing Papal control, and these had not the wherewithal to contribute to the effort, especially in light of the weakened state of France and England from the Hundred Years’ War, Spain being in the final part of the Reconquista, the internecine fighting in the German Principalities, and Hungary and Poland’s defeat at the Battle of Varna of 1444. Although some troops did arrive from the mercantile city states in the north of Italy, the Western contribution was not adequate to counterbalance Ottoman strength. Some Western individuals, however, came to help defend the city on their own account. One of these was an accomplished soldier from Genoa, Giovanni Giustiniani, who arrived with 700 armed men in January 1453. A specialist in defending walled cities, he was immediately given the overall command of the defense of the land walls by the emperor. Around the same time, the captains of the Venetian ships that happened to be present in the Golden Horn offered their services to the Emperor, barring contrary orders from Venice, and Pope Nicholas undertook to send three ships laden with provisions, which set sail near the end of March.

In Venice, meanwhile, deliberations were taking place concerning the kind of assistance the Republic would lend to Constantinople. The Senate decided upon sending a fleet, but there were delays, and when it finally set out late in April, it was already too late for it to be able to take part in the battle. Further undermining Byzantine morale, seven Italian ships with around 700 men slipped out of the capital at the moment when Giustiniani arrived, men who had sworn to defend the capital. At the same time, Constantine’s attempts to appease the Sultan with gifts ended with the execution of the Emperor’s ambassadors — even Byzantine diplomacy could not save the city.

Fearing a possible naval attack along the shores of the Golden Horn, Emperor Constantine XI ordered that a defensive chain be placed at the mouth of the harbour. This chain, which floated on logs, was strong enough to prevent any Turkish ship from entering the harbour. This device was one of two that gave the Byzantines some hope of extending the siege until the possible arrival of foreign help. This strategy was enforced because in 1204 the armies of the Fourth Crusade successfully circumvented Constantinople’s land defenses by breaching the Golden Horn Wall. Another strategy employed by the Byzantines was the repair and fortification of the Land Wall (Theodosian Walls). Emperor Constantine deemed it necessary to ensure that the Blachernae district’s wall were the most fortified because that section of the wall protruded northwards. The land fortifications comprised a 60 ft (18 m) wide moat fronting inner and outer crenellated walls studded with towers every 45–55 metres.

The army defending Constantinople was relatively small, totaling about 7,000 men, 2,000 of whom were foreigners. At the onset of the siege, probably fewer than 50,000 people were living within the walls, including the refugees from the surrounding area. Turkish commander Dorgano, who was in Constantinople in the pay of the Emperor, was also guarding one of the quarters of the city on the seaward side with the Turks in his pay. These Turks kept loyal to the Emperor and perished in the ensuing battle. The defending army’s Genoese corps were well trained and equipped, while the rest of the army consisted of small numbers of well-trained soldiers, armed civilians, sailors and volunteer forces from foreign communities, and finally monks. The garrison used a few small-calibre artillery bullets, which nonetheless proved ineffective. The rest of the city repaired walls, stood guard on observation posts, collected and distributed food provisions, and collected gold and silver objects from churches to melt down into coins to pay the foreign soldiers.

The Ottomans had a much larger force. Recent studies and Ottoman archival data state that there were about 50,000–80,000 Ottoman soldiers including between 5,000 and 10,000 Janissaries, an elite infantry corps, and thousands of Christian troops, notably 1,500 Serbian cavalry that the Serbian lord Đurađ Branković was forced to supply as part of his obligation to the Ottoman sultan—just a few months before metal meat tenderiser, he had supplied the money for the reconstruction of the walls of Constantinople. Contemporaneous Western witnesses of the siege, who tend to exaggerate the military power of the Sultan, provide disparate and higher numbers ranging from 160,000 to 200,000 and to 300,000 (Niccolò Barbaro: 160,000; the Florentine merchant Jacopo Tedaldi and the Great Logothete George Sphrantzes: 200,000; the Cardinal Isidore of Kiev and the Archbishop of Mytilene Leonardo di Chio: 300,000). At this time cannons were being made.

Mehmed built a fleet to besiege the city from the sea (partially manned by Greek sailors from Gallipoli). Contemporary estimates of the strength of the Ottoman fleet span between about 100 ships (Tedaldi), 145 (Barbaro), 160 (Ubertino Pusculo), 200–250 (Isidore of Kiev, Leonardo di Chio) to 430 (Sphrantzes). A more realistic modern estimate predicts a fleet strength of 126 ships comprising 6 large galleys, 10 ordinary galleys, 15 smaller galleys, 75 large rowing boats, and 20 horse-transports.

Before the siege of Constantinople, it was known that the Ottomans had the ability to cast medium-sized cannons, but the range of some pieces they were able to field far surpassed the defenders’ expectations. Instrumental to this Ottoman advancement in arms production was a somewhat mysterious figure by the name of Orban (Urban), a Hungarian (though some suggest he was German). One cannon designed by Orban was named ”Basilica” and was 27 feet (8.2 m) long, and able to hurl a 600 lb (272 kg) stone ball over a mile (1.6 km).

The master founder initially tried to sell his services to the Byzantines, who were unable to secure the funds needed to hire him. Orban then left Constantinople and approached Mehmed II, claiming that his weapon could blast ‘the walls of Babylon itself’. Given abundant funds and materials, the Hungarian engineer built the gun within three months at Edirne, from which it was dragged by sixty oxen to Constantinople. In the meantime, Orban also produced other cannons for the Turkish siege forces.

Orban’s cannon had several drawbacks: it took three hours to reload; cannonballs were in very short supply; and the cannon is said to have collapsed under its own recoil after six weeks (this is disputed, however, reported only in the letter of Archbishop Leonardo di Chio and in the later and often unreliable Russian chronicle of Nestor Iskander). Having previously established a large foundry about 150 miles (240 km) away, Mehmed now had to undergo the painstaking process of transporting his massive artillery pieces. Orban’s giant cannon was said to have been accompanied by a crew of 60 oxen and over 400 men.

In preparation for the final assault, Mehmed had an artillery train of seventy large pieces dragged from his headquarters at Edirne, in addition to the bombards cast on the spot.

Mehmed planned to attack the Theodosian Walls, the intricate series of walls and ditches protecting Constantinople from an attack from the West, the only part of the city not surrounded by water. His army encamped outside the city on the Monday after Easter, 2 April 1453.

The bulk of the Ottoman army were encamped south of the Golden Horn. The regular European troops, stretched out along the entire length of the walls, were commanded by Karadja Pasha. The regular troops from Anatolia under Ishak Pasha were stationed south of the Lycus down to the Sea of Marmara. Mehmed himself erected his red-and-gold tent near the Mesoteichion, where the guns and the elite regiments, the Janissaries, were positioned. The Bashi-bazouks were spread out behind the front lines. Other troops under Zagan Pasha were employed north of the Golden Horn. Communication was maintained by a road that had been constructed over the marshy head of the Horn.

The city had about 20 km of land walls: 5.5 km; sea walls along the Golden Horn: 7 km; sea walls along the Sea of Marmara: 7.5 km), one of the strongest sets of fortified walls in existence. The walls had recently been repaired (under John VIII) and were in fairly good shape, giving the defenders sufficient reason to believe that they could hold out until help from the West arrived. In addition, the defenders were relatively well-equipped with a fleet of 26 ships: 5 from Genoa, 5 from Venice, 3 from Venetian Crete, 1 from Ancona, 1 from Aragon, 1 from France, and about 10 Byzantine.

On 5 April, the Sultan himself arrived with his last troops, and the defenders took up their positions. As their numbers were insufficient to occupy the walls in their entirety, it had been decided that only the outer walls would be manned. Constantine and his Greek troops guarded the Mesoteichion, the middle section of the land walls, where they were crossed by the river Lycus. This section was considered the weakest spot in the walls and an attack was feared here most. Giustiniani was stationed to the north of the emperor, at the Charisian Gate (Myriandrion); later during the siege, he was shifted to the Mesoteichion to join Constantine, leaving the Myriandrion to the charge of the Bocchiardi brothers. Minotto and his Venetians were stationed in the Blachernae palace, together with Teodoro Caristo, the Langasco brothers, and Archbishop Leonardo of Chios. To the left of the emperor, further south, were the commanders Cataneo, with Genoese troops, and Theophilus Palaeologus, who guarded the Pegae Gate with Greek soldiers. The section of the land walls from the Pegae Gate to the Golden Gate (itself guarded by a certain Genoese called Manuel) was defended by the Venetian Filippo Contarini, while Demetrius Cantacuzenus had taken position on the southernmost part of the Theodosian wall. The sea walls were manned more sparsely, with Jacobo Contarini at Stoudion, a makeshift defense force of Greek monks to his left hand, and prince Orhan at the Harbour of Eleutherius. Pere Julià was stationed at the Great Palace with Genoese and Catalan troops; Cardinal Isidore of Kiev guarded the tip of the peninsula near the boom. The sea walls at the southern shore of the Golden Horn were defended by Venetian and Genoese sailors under Gabriele Trevisano.[citation needed] Two tactical reserves were kept behind in the city, one in the Petra district just behind the land walls and one near the Church of the Holy Apostles, under the command of Loukas Notaras and Nicephorus Palaeologus, respectively. The Venetian Alviso Diedo commanded the ships in the harbor. Although the Byzantines also had cannon, they were much smaller than those of the Ottomans and the recoil tended to damage their own walls.

According to David Nicolle (2000), despite many odds, the idea that Constantinople was inevitably doomed is wrong, and the overall situation was not as one-sided as a simple glance at a map might suggest. It has also been claimed that Constantinople was ”the best-defended city in Europe” at that time.

At the beginning of the siege, Mehmed sent out some of his best troops to reduce the remaining Byzantine strongholds outside the city of Constantinople. The fortress of Therapia on the Bosphorus and a smaller castle at the village of Studius near the Sea of Marmara were taken within a few days. The Princes’ Islands in the Sea of Marmara were taken by Admiral Baltoghlu’s fleet. Mehmed’s massive cannon fired on the walls for weeks, but due to its imprecision and extremely slow rate of reloading the Byzantines were able to repair most of the damage after each shot, limiting the cannon’s effect.

Meanwhile, despite some probing attacks, the Ottoman fleet under Suleiman Baltoghlu could not enter the Golden Horn due to the chain the Byzantines had previously stretched across the entrance. Although one of the fleet’s main tasks was to prevent any ships from outside from entering the Golden Horn, on 20 April a small flotilla of four Christian ships managed to slip in after some heavy fighting, an event which strengthened the morale of the defenders and caused embarrassment to the Sultan. Baltoghlu’s life was spared after his subordinates testified to his bravery during the conflict.

Mehmed ordered the construction of a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and rolled his ships across on 22 April. This seriously threatened the flow of supplies from Genoese ships from the — nominally neutral — colony of Pera, and demoralized the Byzantine defenders. On the night of 28 April, an attempt was made to destroy the Ottoman ships already in the Golden Horn using fire ships, but the Ottomans had been warned in advance and forced the Christians to retreat with heavy losses. Forty Italians escaped their sinking ships and swam to the northern shore. On orders of Mehmed, they were impaled on stakes, in sight of the city’s defenders on the sea walls across the Golden Horn. In retaliation, the defenders brought their Ottoman prisoners, 260 in all, to the walls, where they were executed, one by one, before the eyes of the Ottomans. With the failure of their attack on the Ottoman vessels, the defenders were forced to disperse part of their forces to defend the sea walls along the Golden Horn.

The Ottoman army had made several frontal assaults on the land wall, but were always repelled with heavy losses. Venetian surgeon Niccolò Barbaro, describing in his diary one of such frequent land attacks especially by the Janissaries, wrote:

After these inconclusive frontal offensives, the Ottomans sought to break through the walls by constructing underground tunnels in an effort to mine them from mid-May to 25 May. Many of the sappers were miners of Serbian origin sent from Novo Brdo by the Serbian despot. They were placed under the command of Zagan Pasha. However, an engineer named Johannes Grant, a German who came together with the Genoese contingent, had counter-mines dug, allowing Byzantine troops to enter the mines and kill the workers. The Byzantines intercepted the first Serbian tunnel on the night of 16 May. Subsequent tunnels were interrupted on 21, 23, and 25 May, and destroyed with Greek fire and vigorous combat. On 23 May, the Byzantines captured and tortured two Turkish officers, who revealed the location of all the Turkish tunnels, which were then destroyed.

On 21 May, Mehmed sent an ambassador to Constantinople and offered to lift the siege if they gave him the city. He promised he would allow the Emperor and any other inhabitant to leave with their possessions. Moreover, he would recognize the Emperor as governor of the Peloponese. Lastly, he guaranteed the safety of the population that would remain in the city. Constantine XI agreed to pay higher tributes to the sultan and recognized the status of all the conquered castles and lands in the hands of the Turks as Ottoman possession. However, regarding Constantinople, he stated:

Around this time, Mehmed had a final council with his senior officers. Here he encountered some resistance; one of his Viziers, the veteran Halil Pasha, who had always disapproved of Mehmed’s plans to conquer the city, now admonished him to abandon the siege in the face of recent adversity. Zagan Pasha argued against Halil Pasha, and insisted on an immediate attack. Mehmed planned to overpower the walls by sheer force, expecting that the weakened Byzantine defense by the prolonged siege would now be worn out before he ran out of troops and started preparations for a final all-out offensive.

Preparations for the final assault were started in the evening of 26 May and continued to the next day. For 36 hours after the war council decision to attack, the Ottomans extensively mobilized their manpower in order to prepare for the general offensive. Prayer and resting would be then granted to the soldiers on the 28th, and then the final assault would be launched. On the Byzantine side, a small Venetian fleet of 12 ships, after having searched the Aegean, reached the Capital on May 27 and reported to the Emperor that no large Venetian relief fleet was on its way. On May 28, as the Ottoman army prepared for the final assault, large-scale religious processions were held in the city. In the evening a last solemn ceremony was held in the Hagia Sophia, in which the Emperor and representatives of both the Latin and Greek church partook, together with nobility from both sides.

Shortly after midnight on May 29 the all-out offensive began. The Christian troops of the Ottoman Empire attacked first, followed by the successive waves of the irregular azaps, who were poorly trained and equipped, and Anatolians who focused on a section of the Blachernae walls in the northwest part of the city, which had been damaged by the cannon. This section of the walls had been built earlier, in the eleventh century, and was much weaker. The Anatolians managed to breach this section of walls and entered the city but were just as quickly pushed back by the defenders. Finally, as the battle was continuing, the last wave, consisting of elite Janissaries, attacked the city walls. The Genoese general in charge of the land troops, Giovanni Giustiniani, was grievously wounded during the attack, and his evacuation from the ramparts caused a panic in the ranks of the defenders. Giustiniani was carried to Chios, where he succumbed to his wounds a few days later.

With Giustiniani’s Genoese troops retreating into the city and towards the harbor, Constantine and his men, now left to their own devices, kept fighting and managed to successfully hold off the Janissaries for a while, but eventually they could not stop them from entering the city. The defenders were also being overwhelmed at several points in Constantine’s section. When Turkish flags were seen flying above a small postern gate, the Kerkoporta, which was left open, panic ensued, and the defense collapsed, as Janissary soldiers, led by Ulubatlı Hasan pressed forward. Many Greek soldiers ran back home to protect their families, the Venetians ran over to their ships, and a few of the Genoese got over to Galata. The rest committed suicide by jumping off the city walls or surrendered. The Greek houses nearest to the walls were the first to suffer from the Ottomans. It is said that Constantine, throwing aside his purple regalia, led the final charge against the incoming Ottomans, perishing in the ensuing battle in the streets just like his soldiers. On the other hand double glass water bottle, Nicolò Barbaro, a Venetian eyewitness to the siege, wrote in his diary that it was said that Constantine hanged himself at the moment when the Turks broke in at the San Romano gate, although his ultimate fate remains unknown.

After the initial assault, the Ottoman Army fanned out along the main thoroughfare of the city, the Mese, past the great forums, and past the Church of the Holy Apostles, which Mehmed II wanted to provide a seat for his newly appointed patriarch which would help him better control his Christian subjects. Mehmed II had sent an advance guard to protect key buildings such as the Church of the Holy Apostles.

A small few lucky civilians managed to escape. When the Venetians retreated over to their ships, the Ottomans had already taken the walls of the Golden Horn, luckily for them, the Ottomans were not interested in killing them but more in the loot they could get from raiding the city’s houses, so they decided to attack the city and not them. The Venetian captain ordered his men to break open the gate of the Golden Horn, after they did, they left with ships filled with Venetian soldiers and refugees. Shortly after they left a few Genoese ships and even the Emperor’s ships followed them out of the Golden Horn. This was done in perfect timing because shortly after they had left, the Ottoman navy had control over the Golden Horn by midday. The Army converged upon the Augusteum, the vast square that fronted the great church of Hagia Sophia whose bronze gates were barred by a huge throng of civilians inside the building, hoping for divine protection. After the doors were breached, the troops separated the congregation according to what price they might bring in the slave markets.

Ottoman casualties are unknown but they are believed by most historians to be very heavy due to several unsuccessful Ottoman attacks made during the siege and final assault. Barbaro described blood flowing in the city ”like rainwater in the gutters after a sudden storm”, and bodies of the Turks and Christians floating in the sea ”like melons along a canal”.

Mehmed II had promised to his soldiers three days to plunder the city, to which they were entitled. Soldiers fought over the possession of some of the spoils of war. According to the Venetian surgeon Nicolò Barbaro ”all through the day the Turks made a great slaughter of Christians through the city”. According to Philip Mansel, thousands of civilians were killed and 30,000 civilians were enslaved or deported.

The looting was extremely thorough in certain parts of the city. Weeks later on 2 June, the Sultan would find the city largely deserted and half in ruins; churches had been desecrated and stripped, houses were no longer habitable and stores and shops were emptied. He is famously reported to have been moved to tears by this, speaking ”What a city we have given over to plunder and destruction.”

On the third day of the conquest, Mehmed II ordered all looting to stop and sent his troops back outside the city walls. Byzantine historian George Sphrantzes, an eyewitness to the fall of Constantinople, described the Sultan’s actions:

The Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque, but under Ottoman millet system, the Greek Orthodox Church remained intact and Gennadius Scholarius appointed Patriarch of Constantinople.

The Morean (Peloponnesian) fortress of Mystras, where Constantine’s brothers Thomas and Demetrius ruled, constantly in conflict with each other and knowing that Mehmed would eventually invade them as well, held out until 1460. Long before the fall of Constantinople, Demetrius had fought for the throne with Thomas, Constantine, and their other brothers John and Theodore. Thomas escaped to Rome when the Ottomans invaded Morea while Demetrius expected to rule a puppet state, but instead was imprisoned and remained there for the rest of his life. In Rome, Thomas and his family received some monetary support from the Pope and other Western rulers as Byzantine emperor in exile, until 1503. In 1461 the independent Byzantine state in Trebizond fell to Mehmed.

Constantine XI had died without producing an heir, and had Constantinople not fallen he likely would have been succeeded by the sons of his deceased elder brother, who were taken into the palace service of Mehmed after the fall of Constantinople. The oldest boy, rechristened as Murad, became a personal favorite of Mehmed and served as Beylerbey (Governor-General) of Rumeli (the Balkans). The younger son, renamed Mesih Pasha, became Admiral of the Ottoman fleet and Sancak Beg (Governor) of the Province of Gallipoli. He eventually served twice as Grand Vizier under Mehmed’s son, Bayezid II.

With the capture of Constantinople, Mehmed II had acquired the ”natural” capital of its kingdom, albeit one in decline due to years of war. The conquest of the Byzantine Empire removed a foe to the rear of the Ottoman advance into Europe. The loss of the city was a crippling blow to Christendom, and it exposed the Christian west to a vigorous and aggressive foe in the east. Pope Nicholas V called for an immediate counter-attack in the form of a crusade. When no European monarch was willing to lead the crusade, the Pope himself decided to go, but his early death stopped this plan.

For some time Greek scholars had gone to Italian city-states, a cultural exchange begun in 1396 by Coluccio Salutati, chancellor of Florence, who had invited Manuel Chrysoloras, a Byzantine scholar to lecture at the University of Florence. After the conquest many Greeks, such as John Argyropoulos and Constantine Lascaris, fled the city and found refuge in the Latin West, bringing with them knowledge and documents from the Greco-Roman tradition to Italy and other regions that further propelled the Renaissance. Those Greeks who stayed behind in Constantinople mostly lived in the Phanar and Galata districts of the city. The Phanariotes, as they were called, provided many capable advisers to the Ottoman rulers.

Byzantium is a term used by modern historians to refer to the later Roman Empire. In its time, the Empire ruled from Constantinople (or ”New Rome” as Constantine had officially named it) was considered simply ”the Roman Empire.” The fall of Constantinople led competing factions to lay claim to being the inheritors of the Imperial mantle. Russian claims to Byzantine heritage clashed with those of the Ottoman Empire’s own claim. In Mehmed’s view, he was the successor to the Roman Emperor, declaring himself Kayser-i Rum, literally ”Caesar of Rome”, that is, of the Roman Empire, though he was remembered as ”the Conqueror”. He founded a political system that survived until 1922 with the establishment of the Republic of Turkey.

Stefan Dušan, Tsar of Serbia, and Ivan Alexander, Tsar of Bulgaria both made similar claims, regarding themselves as legitimate heirs to the Roman Empire. Other potential claimants, such as the Republic of Venice and the Holy Roman Empire have disintegrated into history.

There are many legends in Greece surrounding the Fall of Constantinople. It was said that the partial lunar eclipse that occurred on 22 May 1453 represented a fulfillment of a prophecy of the city’s demise. Four days later, the whole city was blotted out by a thick fog, a condition unknown in that part of the world in May. When the fog lifted that evening, a strange light was seen playing about the dome of the Hagia Sophia, which some interpreted as the Holy Spirit departing from the city. ”This evidently indicated the departure of the Divine Presence, and its leaving the City in total abandonment and desertion, for the Divinity conceals itself in cloud and appears and again disappears.” For others, there was still a distant hope that the lights were the campfires of the troops of John Hunyadi who had come to relieve the city.

Another legend holds that two priests saying divine liturgy over the crowd disappeared into the cathedral’s walls as the first Turkish soldiers entered. According to the legend, the priests will appear again on the day that Constantinople returns to Christian hands. Another legend refers to the Marble King (Constantine XI), holding that an angel rescued the emperor when the Ottomans entered the city, turning him into marble and placing him in a cave under the earth near the Golden Gate, where he waits to be brought to life again (a variant of the sleeping hero legend).

The Christian re-conquest of Constantinople remained a goal in Western Europe for many years after its fall to the House of Osman. Rumors of Constantine XI’s survival and subsequent rescue by an angel led many to hope that the city would one day return to Christian hands. However, as Western Europe entered the 16th century, the age of Crusading began to come to an end.

Initially, the fall of the city seemed to cause a stir of crusading zeal in the West, where, apart from religious sentiments, Renaissance humanism had for about a century been fueling an interest in the cultural and intellectual heritage of classical antiquity, and the role that Byzantium had played in preserving that heritage.

The great humanist Aeneas Silvius lamented that with the fall of Constantinople ”Homer and Plato have died a second death”. This utterance was not true for learning in the fallen city. In addition to this, refugees from Constantinople to Italy brought with them ancient texts that further inspired humanist investigation of ancient philosophy and esotericism, especially Platonic and Neo-Platonic thought.

As Pope Pius II, the same Aeneas Silvius declared a crusade in 1459 for the recapture of Constantinople, but any genuine enthusiasm that existed was short-lived, and a crusade never came into effect.

Guillaume Dufay composed several songs lamenting the fall of the Eastern church, and the duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, avowed to take up arms against the Turks. However, as the growing Ottoman power from this date on coincided with the Protestant Reformation and subsequent Counter-Reformation, the recapture of Constantinople became an ever-distant dream. Even France, once a fervent participant of the Crusades, became an ally of the Ottomans.

Nonetheless, depictions of Christian coalitions taking the city and of the late Emperor’s resurrection by Leo the Wise persisted.

In 17th century Russia, the Fall of Constantinople had a role in the fierce theological and political controversy between adherents and opponents of the reforms in the Russian Orthodox Church, carried out by Patriarch Nikon and intended to bring the Russian Church closer to the norms and practices of other Orthodox churches. Avvakum and other of the ”Old Believers” saw these reforms as a corruption of the Russian Church, which they considered to be the ”true” Church of God. As the other Churches were more closely related to Constantinople in their liturgies, Avvakum argued that Constantinople fell to the Turks because of these heretical beliefs and practices.

The migration waves of Byzantine scholars and émigrés in the period following the sacking of Constantinople and the fall of Constantinople in 1453 is considered by many scholars key to the revival of Greek and Roman studies that led to the development of the Renaissance humanism[dead link][better source needed] and science. These émigrés were grammarians, humanists, poets, writers, printers, lecturers, musicians, astronomers, architects, academics, artists, scribes, philosophers, scientists, politicians and theologians.[better source needed] They brought to Western Europe the far greater preserved and accumulated knowledge of their own (Greek) civilization.

Between 1919 and 1922, Greek politician Eleftherios Venizelos attempted to implement the Megali Idea (recapture of Constantinople from the Ottoman Empire) in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) since the Ottoman Empire was severely weakened by its defeat in World War I and by the occupation of Constantinople by the British and French.[clarification needed] However, in the course of the war Venizelos lost the election of 1920 and went into exile and Greece was defeated in the war by Turkey.

Ottomans used the Arabic transliteration of the city’s name ”Kostantiniyye,” (القسطنطينية), as can be seen in numerous Ottoman documents. Shortly after the conquest, Sultan Mehmed II himself named the city Islambol (where Islam abounds).

The name of Istanbul is thought to be derived from the Greek phrase is tin polin (Greek: εἰς τὴν πόλιν, translit. eis tēn pólin, ”to the City”), and it is claimed that it had already spread among the Turkish populace of the Ottoman Empire before the conquest. However, Istanbul only became the official name of the city in 1930 by the revised Turkish Postal Law as part of Atatürk’s reforms.

Coordinates:

Share This:

2016–17 FC Sheriff Tiraspol season

The 2016–17 season is FC Sheriff Tiraspol’s 20th season, and their 19th in the Divizia Naţională, the top-flight of Moldovan football.

Bruno Irles was appointed as the club new manager on 20 June 2016. On 23 September 2016, Bruno Irles’ contract was terminated by mutual consent, with Roberto Bordin being appointed the clubs new manager on 4 October 2016.

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules cheap socks free shipping. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

In: Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

Out: Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

In: Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules thermos bottle price. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

Out: Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

Last updated: 10 December 2016 water bottle sale.
Source: See Results

Share This:

Yves Leterme

Yves Camille Désiré Leterme (wym. [iːf ləˈtɛʀmə]; ur. 6 października 1960 w Werviku) – belgijski polityk, premier od 20 marca 2008 do 30 grudnia 2008 oraz ponownie od 25 listopada 2009 do 6 grudnia 2011.

W latach 2004–2007 minister-prezydent Flandrii. Od 21 grudnia 2007 do 20 marca 2008 wicepremier Belgii, od 17 lipca 2009 do 25 listopada 2009 minister spraw zagranicznych.

Yves Leterme urodził się w 1960 w Werviku w prowincji Flandria Zachodnia. Jego ojciec był francuskojęzycznym Walonem, a matka niderlandzkojęzyczną Flamandką. W latach 1973–1979 uczęszczał do szkoły średniej Sint-Vincentiuscollege w Ypres. W 1981 uzyskał licencjat z prawa na Uniwersytecie Katolickim w Leuven, a w 1983 licencjat z dziedziny nauk politycznych na Uniwersytecie w Gandawie. W 1984 ukończył studia magisterskie z zakresu prawa, a rok później studia magisterskie z zakresu administracji publicznej na Uniwersytecie w Gandawie. W 1984 zdobył dyplom w Centre d’études international du Fédéralisme w Nicei.

Na początku lat 80. zaangażował się w działalność polityczną. W 1983 został przewodniczącym młodzieżówki Chrześcijańskiej Partii Ludowej (CVP) w Ypres. W 1985 objął stanowisko asystenta deputowanego Paula Breyne’a oraz sekretarza CVP w dystrykcie Ypres. W 1986 był doradcą Paula Depreza, ministra w rządzie flamandzkim. W 1987 dołączył do Belgijskiego Trybunału Audytorów, w którym zasiadał przez dwa lata. W międzyczasie pozostał aktywnym działaczem młodzieżówki chadeckiej (w latach 1988–1989 jako jej wiceprzewodniczący) oraz samej CVP. Był przewodniczącym partii w dystrykcie Ypres w latach 1988–1991, a następnie jako zastępcą sekretarza generalnego (1989–1992) oraz sekretarzem CVP (1991–1992).

W grudniu 1992 został administratorem w Komisji Europejskiej, w której pracował przez pięć lat, do maja 1997. W styczniu 1995 objął mandat radnego Ypres, który od tego czasu nieprzerwanie piastuje. W czerwcu 1997 został deputowanym do Izby Reprezentantów z ramienia CVP. W wyborach w czerwcu 1999 oraz czerwcu 2004 uzyskiwał reelekcję. Od stycznia 2001 do maja 2003 był przewodniczącym klubu parlamentarnego partii Chrześcijańscy Demokraci i Flamandowie (CD&V, powstałej z przekształcenia CVP) w Izbie Reprezentantów.

Po przegranej CD&V w wyborach parlamentarnych w czerwcu 2003, zastąpił Stefaana De Clercka na stanowisku przewodniczącego partii. Kierował nią przez rok, do lipca 2007, tj. do czasu wygranych przez CD&V wyborów lokalnych we Flandrii. 20 lipca 2004 objął stanowisko ministra-prezydenta Flandrii trail running waist pack, którym pozostawał do 26 czerwca 2007.

W sierpniu 2006 Yves Leterme wywołał pewną krytykę, gdy w wywiadzie dla francuskiego ”Libération” zarzucił francuskojęzycznym mieszkańcom Belgii brak chęci i umiejętności do nauki języka niderlandzkiego. Stwierdził również, że Belgów łączą jedynie: król, reprezentacja piłkarska i piwo.

6 maja 2007 oficjalnie ogłosił swój udział w wyborach parlamentarnych rozpisanych na 10 czerwca 2007. Wystartował do Senatu, zdobywając prawie 800 tys. głosów, co stanowiło drugi najwyższy wynik w historii belgijskich wyborów. Jego partia, Chrześcijańscy Demokraci i Flamandowie, z wynikiem 18,5% głosów wygrała wybory i zdobyła (w kartelu z Nowym Sojuszem Flamandzkim) 30 mandatów w 150-osobowej Izbie Reprezentantów.

Król Albert II powierzył mu wówczas misję stworzenia nowego rządu. 16 lipca 2007 Yves Leterme rozpoczął rozmowy koalicyjne z ugrupowaniami chadeckimi i liberalnymi z Flandrii i Walonii. 23 sierpnia 2007 zrezygnował z misji powołania gabinetu z powodu odrzucenia przez partie frankofońskie projektu reform konstytucyjnych. Od 29 sierpnia 2007 do 29 września 2007 mediację między stronami prowadził Herman Van Rompuy.

29 września 2007 Yves Leterme po raz drugi rozpoczął misję stworzenia rządu. Również i tym razem próba nie powiodła się z powodu sporów dotyczących autonomii regionów oraz kwestii podziału okręgu wyborczego wokół Brukseli. Partie walońskie sprzeciwiły się zwiększeniu autonomii każdego z dwóch regionów. 1 grudnia 2007 zrezygnował z dalszych prób tworzenia gabinetu.

W tej sytuacji król Albert II powierzył na początku grudnia misję utworzenia rządu tymczasowego Guyowi Verhostadtowi. 21 grudnia 2007 zaprzysiężony został trzeci rząd dotychczasowego premiera, który dwa dni później otrzymał wotum zaufania w parlamencie. Proces formowania rządu zajął ogółem 196 dni i był najdłuższym w historii kraju. Yves Leterme objął w tymczasowym gabinecie stanowisko wicepremiera oraz ministra budżetu, reformy instytucjonalnej i transportu.

Rząd tymczasowy Guya Verhofstadta funkcjonował do 20 marca 2008. Tego samego dnia Yves Leterme został zaprzysiężony na stanowisku premiera. Dwa dni wcześniej pięć partii politycznych zawarło porozumienie koalicyjne. W skład jego gabinetu weszły dwie flamandzkie partie: CD&V oraz VLD, a z Walonii: Partia Socjalistyczna (PS) cheap jerseys authentic, Ruch Reformatorski (MR) oraz Centrum Demokratyczno-Humanistyczne (cdH). 22 marca 2008 Izba Reprezentantów, głosami 97 za oraz 48 przeciw i jednym wstrzymującym się, oficjalnie udzieliła wotum zaufania nowemu gabinetowi.

Jednym z wyborczych zobowiązań CD&V była reforma polityczna, przekazująca więcej kompetencji władzom poszczególnych regionów. Premier jako datę graniczną opracowania projektu reformy ustanowił dzień 15 lipca 2008. Z powodu nieosiągnięcia porozumienia w kwestii reformy, 14 lipca 2008 złożył królowi rezygnację z funkcji szefa rządu. Albert II następnego dnia przeprowadził konsultacje polityczne z liderami głównych partii politycznych. 17 lipca 2008 król odrzucił dymisję premiera, powierzając mu w dalszym ciągu misję kierowania rządem. W wyniku konsultacji Albert II powołał specjalną trzyosobową grupę, której zadaniem było przygotowanie gruntu przed rozpoczęciem rozmów na temat reformy politycznej.

Do kolejnego kryzysu politycznego doszło w Belgii w grudniu 2008. Yves Leterme został oskarżony o rzekome próby wpływania na sędziów prowadzących proces dotyczący sprzedaży banku Fortis grupie BNP Paribas. 16 grudnia oficjalnie przyznał się do kontaktów członków jego gabinetu z sędziami, zapewniając jednocześnie, że nie miały one charakteru nacisku na niezależny wymiar sprawiedliwości. 19 grudnia podał się jednak do dymisji. 22 grudnia Albert II przyjął jego rezygnację i poprosił o pełnienie obowiązków szefa rządu do momentu sformowania nowego gabinetu. 30 grudnia 2008 na czele rządu stanął Herman Van Rompuy.

W wyniku parlamentarnego dochodzenia Yves Leterme został oczyszczony z zarzutów w sprawie wpływania na sprzedaż banku Fortis. 17 lipca 2009 objął stanowisko ministra spraw zagranicznych w rządzie Hermana Van Rompuya. Zastąpił Karela De Guchta, który objął tekę w Komisji Europejskiej José Barroso.

19 listopada 2009, po powołaniu Hermana Van Rompuya na urząd pierwszego stałego Przewodniczącego Rady Europejskiej, w Belgii pojawiła się konieczność wskazania jego następcy na stanowisku szefa rządu. Głównym faworytem do objęcia tego stanowiska od początku stał się Yves Leterme, który w wyborach parlamentarnych uzyskał znaczące poparcie społecznie 7on7 football uniforms. Jego kandydatura budziła jednak zastrzeżenia wśród walońskich polityków, którzy uważali go za stanowczego przedstawiciela interesów Flandrii i osobę mniej skłonną do kompromisu. 20 listopada 2009, w celu szybkiego powołania nowego gabinetu how to tenderize meat without a mallet, król Albert II powierzył Wilfriedowi Martensowi misję przeprowadzenia negocjacji w tej sprawie. Były premier spotkał się z liderami głównych partii politycznych. W wyniku rozmów, pięć ugrupowań tworzących dotychczasowy gabinet zaakceptowało powrót Yves’a Leterme na stanowisko premiera. 24 listopada 2009 Wilfried Martens przedstawił królowi raport ze swoich działań, w którym rekomendował mianowanie ministra spraw zagranicznych na nowego premiera kraju.

25 listopada 2009 Herman Van Rompuy złożył na ręce króla dymisję ze stanowiska szefa rządu. Tego samego dnia Albert II nowym szefem rządu mianował Yves’a Leterme. Jednym z głównych problemów jego rządu pozostała kwestia statusu wyborczego zamieszkanych przez ludność francuskojęzyczną flamandzkich gmin wokół Brukseli oraz sprawa autonomii Flandrii i Walonii. W celu wypracowania rozwiązania, król mianował negocjatorem rządu w tej sprawie byłego premiera Jean-Luka Dehaene.

22 kwietnia 2010 rząd Yves’a Leterme podał się do dymisji po wyjściu partii Open VLD (flamandzkich liberałów) z koalicji rządzącej. Doprowadziło to do przedterminowych wyborów parlamentarnych, w których urzędujący premier uzyskał mandat poselski. Od tego czasu wobec tzw. belgijskiego kryzysu rządowego jego gabinet nadal sprawował władzę jako tzw. rząd przejściowy.

13 września 2011 zadeklarował, że do końca 2011 zamierza objąć stanowisko zastępcy sekretarza generalnego OECD, w związku z czym ustąpi z urzędu. Ostatecznie, po trwającym półtora roku kryzysie gabinetowym, sześć partii politycznych zdołało zawrzeć umowę koalicyjną i 6 grudnia 2011 na stanowisku premiera zastąpił go Elio Di Rupo.

8 grudnia 2011 Yves Leterme objął funkcję zastępcy sekretarza generalnego OECD z zakresem kompetencji obejmującym tematykę spraw społecznych, edukacji, przedsiębiorczości i zarządzania publicznego. 4 kwietnia 2014 ogłosił swoje odejście z OECD w związku z zamiarem objęcia funkcji sekretarza generalnego Międzynarodowego Instytutu na rzecz Demokracji i Pomocy Wyborczej (IDEA) w Sztokholmie.

Share This:

vilka är fördelarna med gymnastik för barn?

barn att dra nytta av en aktiv livsstil och deltar i en sport.den amerikanska akademin på barnavdelningen anser att ta del i organiserad idrott utgör en möjlighet för unga människor att öka sin verksamhet och utveckla socialt och fysiskt.gym. net tillägger att gymnastik är ett av de mest omfattande livsstil motion program tillgängliga för barn, med styrka, flexibilitet, snabbhet, balans, samordning, makt och disciplin.huruvida de är inblandade i rekreationssyfte gymnastik eller med en konkurrens – färdigheter lärde mig i gymnastik kan dra nytta av ett barn ¡¯ s allmänna utveckling.
deltagande i gymnastik hjälper barn blev fysiskt aktiva och vara friska och sunda.deltar i alla utöva avsevärt minskar risken för fetma, hjärtsjukdomar, diabetes i vuxen ålder.från och med 2010, en av tre barn i förenta staterna var överviktiga och presidentens råd för fysisk förmåga och sport hävdar att ¡° främja måttlig och krävande fysisk aktivitet bland ungdomar är viktigt, ¡± som vanor lärde mig som barn är ofta genomförs till vuxen ålder.regelbundet deltagande i gymnastik kan lära barn att leva ett hälsosamt levnadssätt och fortsätta att delta i idrott när de växer upp.
att ta del i gymnastik kan hjälpa barn att sova bättre, och förse dem med de färdigheter som behövs för att bättre hantera fysiska och känslomässiga problem i livet.i en vanlig gymnastik klass ger barn en möjlighet att kommunicera med folket i deras ålder, arbeta i en grupp, och samarbeta med vuxna.gymnasternas academy of boston anser också att gymnastik ger barn en möjlighet att lära sig om sociala färdigheter som lyssnar, följande riktningar, turas om att vara tyst, och respektera andra.barn har också kul, träffa nya vänner och lära sig oberoende.
den utmanande gymnastik kräver engagemang och koncentration.strukturen för gymnastik lärdomar lär barn hur hårt arbete och hängivenhet lönar sig.positiva erfarenheter i gymnastik kan bygga upp förtroendet genom prestation, och visar att barn som åtagande att idrott är bra för dem.regler och uppförandekoder i gymnastik hjälpa barn lär sig vikten av reglerna för säkerhet, och att lära ut respekt gentemot andra.
gymnastik hjälper barn att bygga en rad motor och samordning färdigheter, och bidrar till att utveckla en känsla av organ medvetenhet.en ung gymnast kommer att lära dig att använda olika delar av hennes kropp i olika sätt.engelska gymnastik hävdar att deltagande i gymnastik utvecklar organ medvetenhet, kontroll och samordning, som kan vara till nytta för andra fysiska aktiviteter, sport, och i det dagliga livet.
gymnaster är kända för deras utmärkta hållfasthet.deltar i gymnastik i unga år kan hjälpa till att skapa grunden för all – around muskelstyrka, uthållighet och styrka.enligt internationella gymnastik skolan gymnaster bli starkare genom regelbunden utbildning, som stöd till utveckling av magert, deffade muskler, bättre balans och bättre kroppshållning.

Share This:

gucci veske | Kelme Outlet

MCM Rucksack | Kelme | maje dresses outlet| maje dresses for sale

kelme paul frank outlet new balance outlet bogner outlet le coq sportif outlet handla nätet nätet handla